Nabin Joshi, Mercy Corps and Krity Shrestha, Practical Action
13 September 2021
What is FRMC?
The Flood Resilience Measurement for Communities (FRMC) framework measures 44 “sources of resilience” before a flood happens and looks at the “post-flood” impact afterwards. The FRMC tool is built around the notion of five types of capital (the 5Cs: human, social, physical, natural, and financial capital) and the 4Rs of a resilient system (robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity). The “sources of resilience” are grouped into the five capitals of the “Sustainable Livelihoods framework” and other classifications that assist in interpreting the results for making decisions. These “sources of resilience” are graded from A (best practice) to D (significantly below standard) based on the data collected from communities. Results are displayed according to the 5Cs and 4Rs, plus several additional groupings, to give the approach further flexibility and accessibility.
The FRMC framework has been developed into an integrated, web-based, mobile device platform that allows the collection of data needed to measure community flood resilience. The tool enables users—usually stakeholders working with flood-prone communities—to create questionnaires, collect data, and assess community flood capacities. The tool generates and visualizes results, thereby providing evidence for informed decision making on intervention design and ex-ante investment in flood resilience.
FRMC extension in 14 communities
Mercy corps Nepal is implementing FRMC in 14 communities of Alital, Parshuram, Krishnapur and Mahakali municipalities in the Far-western province. Practical Action Nepal has been working with communities in Kailali and Bardiya for the FRMC implementation.
Under the FRMC extension, Practical Action is providing technical support to Mercy Corps and their partners. As part of technical support; Practical Action has provided hands on training for Mercy Corps on April 2021 in Tikapur, Kailali. The training largely focused on hands on exercises in FRMC training tool itself. Prior to this, Nabin Joshi, Senior project Officer and FRMC lead for Mercy Corps had visited Practical Action field areas where he observed how enumerators and field staff carried out surveys in Madhuwan Rural Municipality.
During the field visit he also interacted with various enumerators and discussed on the benefits of FRMC training and challenges in the ground.
“It was interesting to observe how enumerators support to collect evidence to measure resilience of the community, in FRMC process. The data collection process is very much participatory and it was interesting to see how to use these techniques to collect data on 44 sources of resilience , that are categorised in 5 C’s based on the “Sustainable Livelihood framework” of a local community. Also, it was more interesting to see how different data collection method was used to collect data for same source of resilience.”Nabin Joshi , Mercy Corps
Dila Chaudhary, an enumerator shared with Nabin that she feels good to be engaged as enumerator for FRMC survey; as she herself belongs to flood prone community. Tt is thus easier for her to communicate and explain questions with her community members for the survey.
“FRMC tool is quite simple to use, but you must know the purpose of the tool, understand flood and its localized impacts to community and communicate effectively during the survey”Dila Chaudhary, FRMC enumerator.
The second wave of COVID 19 slightly delayed the process of FRMC extension for Mercy Corps. However, after the local partners were selected, Mercy Corps has virtually organized an in – depth orientation for Project Coordinators from their local partners. These coordinators will be facilitating FRMC on the ground as Project leads for respective organizations.
“In regards to the in-depth training on FRMC, we learned about FRMC Framework, sources of resilience, 4 R’s and 5 C’s, seven theme lenses, Data collection methods along with grading of the sources of the resilience. The learning was fruitful to support the baseline data collection from the community and to measure the resilience of the community”Neeraj Kumar Tharu, Mercy Corps partner for FRMC implementation.
“During covid times the virtual learning was fruitful as it helped me gain in depth understanding on FRMC as a process and as a tool”.Laxmi Badayak, RUWDUC Dadeldhura, Mercy Corps Partner for FRMC implementation
Mercy Corps will launch FRMC study in 14 communities, which lie in 4 local governments of far western province. Out of 14 communities, 6 of these communities lie in Terai region of Lower Mahakali watershed and 8 communities lie in mid hill regions of Rangoon watershed that drains into the Mahakali watershed.
Practical Action and Mercy Corps will jointly organize enumerators training for local enumerators for all 14 new communities. Practical Action will also provide technical support while conducting and concluding the FRMC survey as an extension support to Mercy Corps.
Practical Action and Mercy Corps are both members of Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance. Mercy Corps and Practical Action together with International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) collaborate in Nepal through ZFRA Nepal Alliance team for research and advocacy on flood resilience. The ZFRA Nepal Alliance works to increase knowledge and understanding about systematic approach of resilience building at community level by using the Framework of Flood Resilience Measurement of Communities (FRMC); sharing that knowledge with local governments to lead better resilience planning and funding through local budget planning cycles and showcasing better approach in targeted communities and local government to create evidences for provincial and national government to improve flood resilience related laws, policies and plans. .